Climate-protective forests of the south. Part one: forest belts of steppe zones.

If you look at the satellite map of the plains adjacent to the North Caucasus in Russia, then it all consists of small rectangles. Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory, Republic of Adygea — all solid rectangles of agricultural land! And only to the foothills of the Caucasus do forest zones begin. And even then, the regions of the Caucasus are the least wooded of the forest regions of Russia. Slightly more than 10% are actually trees, forest. The rest is mountains, meadows and pastures. There is little forest here, very little! And the forest is still being cut down here! Beech, oak — valuable reserves of expensive wood, but how could it be otherwise?

But I’ll start with the flat part of the south of Russia.

There is such a strange line on the satellite map. Three parallel thin lines stretch among the monotonous squares. Broken line, sometimes with small breaks. It begins 16 kilometers south of Penza, near the small village of Novaya Kamenka. And it ends at the left bank of the Seversky Donets River, at the Borodinov farm. This is between Kamensk-Shakhtinsky and Belaya Kalitva in the Rostov region.

Three lines running parallel to each other on the map — in reality, 3 parallel forest belts with a planting width of 50-60 meters and at a distance of about 350 meters from each other. The total width of the protective forest belt is about 700 meters! Almost a kilometer! Impressive, isn’t it ?! And this is with a total length of 708.5 kilometers. State protective forest belt Belaya Kalitva — Penza. Part of the so-called «Stalin’s plan for the transformation of nature.» A monument to an ancient powerful civilization that we inherited.

The date of birth of this masterpiece of the Ancients can be considered the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks dated October 20, 1948 No. 3960:

«one. In order to overcome the destructive influence of dry winds on the yield of agricultural crops, to protect the fertile soils of the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the central black earth regions from blowing out, and to improve the water regime and climatic conditions of these regions, it is necessary to establish the following large state forest belts during 1950-1965:

State protective forest belt in the direction of Penza — Yekaterinovka — Veshenskaya — Kamensk on the Northern Donets, on the watersheds of the rivers Khopra and Medveditsa, Kalitva and Berezovaya, consisting of three strips 60 meters wide each with a distance between the strips of 300 meters and a length of 600 kilometers. «

THIS IS THE CLIMATE PROTECTION FORESTS OF THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

And I honestly do not understand today’s cries: «Oh, there is not enough water, the rivers are shallow, a meager river with dead water flows in the center of the reservoirs, the yield in the fields is falling, and there is nothing to feed the cattle!»

What do you want ?! I will explain for the uninformed and those who do not understand: there used to be enough arid steppes here! Today’s water supply to the region was created by citizens from the USSR. This is an artificial water supply — a network of canals and reservoirs. Today’s opportunity to get big harvests on the fat black soil of the south is the result of the activities of Soviet citizens. You look at these man-made forests on the map. Then you walk on them, touch the tree trunks. And other associations do not come to mind: traces of the ancient civilization of the Demigods, now inhabited by monkeys. From the endless steppes, the Ancients made prosperous agricultural lands. And now the monkeys are making a desert out of them — these lands will not return to the steppe! The biocenoses of perennial grasses are destroyed. The soils are plowed up, and the roots of steppe grasses no longer protect them from being blown away by the winds. The top layer turns to dust and is blown out. That is now simply visible with an unarmed gaze near the Caspian Sea, in Kalmykia. Desert! The rich farmlands created by the Ancients are being transformed by the monkeys into barren wastelands!

Isn’t it good to swear at good kind people as «monkeys»? But as?! Check out a short chronology of events!

1948 — A plan is adopted to regulate river flow and planting of giant state forest belts.

1950 — 1965 — State forest protection zones with a total length of 5320 km were created. The area of ​​forest plantations was 118 thousand hectares. This is not counting the local forest belts of local importance!

Simultaneously with the installation of a system of field-protective afforestation, a large program was launched to create irrigation systems. In the USSR, about 4 thousand reservoirs were created, containing 1200 km³ of water.

The measures taken have led to an increase in grain yield by 25-30%, vegetables — by 50-75%, grasses — by 100-200%.

1953 — with the death of Stalin, the implementation of the program is suspended. Many forest belts were cut down, several thousand ponds and reservoirs for fish farming were abandoned, 570 forest protection stations created in 1949 — 1955 were liquidated.

1985 — work on the expansion and modernization of the irrigation and forest plantation system created in the USSR was stopped. In the 1980s, forests were planted in the forest belts in the amount of 30 thousand hectares per year.

1995 — since that time, tree planting is still carried out, but it fluctuates at the level of about 2 thousand hectares per year.

2004 — water supply to agriculture began to decline gradually. In 2004, rough estimates were made — it turned out to be about 3.4 times less than in 1984.

2006 — before that, forest belts were part of the structure of the Ministry of Agriculture. And since 2006 they have been withdrawn from it. Having turned out to be virtually nobody’s, forest belts began to be intensively cut down for cottage development or in order to obtain timber.

Despite the gradual degradation, forest belts exist to this day. They continue to perform both moisture-retaining and snow-retaining functions. Continue to hold back dry winds.

AND? What are the «unexpected catastrophic droughts» if the 2004 survey showed that the water supply to agriculture decreased 3.4 times from the 1984 level ?!

“Progress”, or is it “monkeys”?

Judging by what I see, favorable conditions for agriculture in the south of our country were created artificially. Climate-protective forests degrade, water redistribution systems degrade — and everything returns to its original conditions. Arid steppe and high flood water in the rivers.

Only this is no longer a steppe, but a plowed land! And the winds blow out the surface layer of the soil, filling the rivers even faster. This is also a biocenosis. An artificially created self-destructive agro-biocenosis! The system of accelerated transformation of territories into a desert. The global climatic trend for an increase in average annual temperatures by 1-2 degrees only spurs these processes, no more. And 90% of the reason is that people stopped supporting the infrastructure that changed the climate in these places 70 years ago. No «whims of nature» — the Ancient Demigods, who changed the climate, simply left, and the systems created by them are slowly degrading.

© PAVEL PASHKOV

 

Translation of articles from Russian into English is carried out with the support of a google translator. All claims for errors should be sent to Google.

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Pavel Pashkov